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Prospective Belgian study of neurodegenerative and vascular dementia: APOE genotype effects.
S Engelborghs; B Dermaut; J Goeman; J Saerens; P Mariën; B A Pickut; M Van den Broeck; S Serneels; M Cruts; C Van Broeckhoven; et al. (Profiled Author: Van Broeckhoven, Christine)
Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 2003;74(8):1148-51.
OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a prospective study of neurodegenerative and vascular dementia in Belgium. Strict diagnostic inclusion criteria were used to include well defined patients and controls. The results of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype effect on risk and clinical characteristics are presented. METHODS: APOE genotyping was performed in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=504), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n=47), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=152), mixed dementia (n=132), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), Parkinson's disease (PD) (n=30), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=17), and multisystem atrophy (MSA)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n=12). RESULTS: The APOE allele frequencies of this Belgian control population (epsilon 2: 6.9%; epsilon 3: 76.2%; epsilon 4: 16.9%) did not differ from those reported for other white populations. AD, MCI, and mixed dementia patients had higher APOE epsilon 4 (32.9%, 38.6%, and 28.4% respectively) and lower APOE epsilon 3 (62.2%, 53.4%, and 66.3%) frequencies compared with controls, whereas only AD and mixed dementia patients had lower APOE epsilon 2 frequencies (4.9% and 5.3%). Apart from a borderline significant different distribution of APOE allele frequencies in VaD patients compared with controls, no other differences were detected. The influence of APOE epsilon 4 on clinical features of dementia was limited to lower age at onset in AD patients and a less pronounced negative correlation between age at onset and number of epsilon 4 alleles in MCI and mixed dementia patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the risk association between APOE epsilon 4 and AD. The observation that APOE epsilon 4 is associated with mixed dementia reflected the role of AD in the aetiopathogenesis of this condition. Although MCI is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, the increased APOE epsilon 4 frequencies indicated that a large proportion of the MCI patients included in the study might be predisposed to develop AD.
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