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Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1: convergence of the ERK and p38 pathways in Alzheimer's disease.
Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
Journal of neuroscience research 2005;79(4):554-60.
Two of the earliest manifestations of the selective neurodegeneration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) involve the oxidative modification of various biomacromolecules and the reexpression of a multitude of cell cycle-related proteins. Taken together with the proximal and ectopic increases in activated components of the ERK and p38 pathways, involved in mitotic and cellular stress signaling, respectively, there is a clear and important role for mitotic and oxidative insults in the pathogenesis of AD. Despite the mounting evidence, however, for the causal role of mitogenic abnormalities and oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis, the effect of the converging relevant pathways due to chronic stimulation in AD remains largely unknown. To delineate further the mechanism by which mitogenic and stress signaling cascades converge, we focused on one of the downstream effectors of activated ERK and p38, mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). Activated MSK1, phosphorylated at residues Ser376 and Thr581, was upregulated in vulnerable neurons in AD when compared to that in age-matched controls, whereas MSK1 phosphorylated at residue Ser360 was not increased in AD. Furthermore, activated MSK1 phosphorylated at Thr581 colocalized strongly with activated p38 but only weakly with activated ERK, whereas MSK1 phosphorylated at Ser376 colocalized strongly with activated ERK but only weakly with activated p38, suggesting potential preferential phosphorylation sites for the two upstream effectors.
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