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Incidence of common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals in Pune, India: analysis by stages of immunosuppression represented by CD4 counts.
Manisha Ghate; Swapna Deshpande; Srikanth Tripathy; Madhura Nene; Preeti Gedam; Sheela Godbole; Madhuri Thakar; Arun Risbud; Robert Bollinger; Sanjay Mehendale (Profiled Author: Robert Bollinger)
National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 2009;13(1):e1-8.
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections (OIs) influence the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infections. Data from India on the incidence of OIs among HIV-infected individuals by stages of immunodeficiency are scarce. METHODS: Between September 2002 and November 2004, HIV-infected individuals were enrolled in a prospective study in Pune. They were clinically and immunologically evaluated quarterly. Incidence rates of specific OIs were calculated. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts in HIV-infected male and female patients at baseline were 197/mm(3) and 413/mm(3), respectively. Tuberculosis was the most common OI with an incidence of 15.4 (95% CI 12.2-19.2) per 100 person-years, followed by oral candidiasis 11.3 (95% CI 8.6-14.5), herpes zoster 10.1 (95% CI 7.6-13.1), and cryptococcal meningitis 1.7 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) per 100 person-years. Patients with baseline CD4 counts of <200/mm(3) were six times more likely to develop OIs compared to those with CD4 counts of >350/mm(3) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of commonly reported OIs in Indian HIV-infected individuals highlights the need for early screening and also the need to increase awareness in healthcare providers, in order to improve decisions regarding prophylaxis for prevention and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Emphasis needs to be given to the early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals.
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