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Pigment epithelium-derived factor suppresses ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization and VEGF-induced migration and growth.
Elia J Duh; Hoseong S Yang; Izumi Suzuma; Masaru Miyagi; Elaine Youngman; Keisuke Mori; Miyuki Katai; Lin Yan; Kiyoshi Suzuma; Karen West; et al. (Profiled Authors: Peter Campochiaro; Peter Gehlbach; Donald Zack; Elia Duh)
Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maumenee 809, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2002;43(3):821-9.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in a mouse model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization and on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)--induced migration and growth of cultured microvascular endothelial cells. METHODS: Human recombinant PEDF was expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation exchange chromatography. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day (P)7 to P12 and then returned to room air. Mice received intravitreal injections of 2 microg PEDF in one eye and vehicle in the contralateral eye on P12 and P14. At P17, mice were killed and eyes enucleated for quantitation of retinal neovascularization. The mitogenic and motogeneic effects of VEGF on cultured bovine retinal and adrenal capillary endothelial cells were examined in the presence or absence of PEDF, using cell counts and migration assays. RESULTS: Two species of human recombinant PEDF, denoted A and B, were purified to apparent homogeneity. PEDF B appeared to comigrate on SDS-PAGE with PEDF from human vitreous samples. Changes in electrophoretic mobility after peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) digestion suggest that both PEDF forms contain N-linked carbohydrate. Analyses of the intact proteins by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESMS) revealed the major molecular weight species for PEDF A (47,705 +/- 4) and B (46,757 +/- 5). LC-ESMS analysis of tryptic peptides indicated that PEDF A and B exhibit differences in glycopeptides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc). Intravitreal administration of either species of PEDF significantly inhibited retinal neovascularization (83% for PEDF A and 55% for PEDF B; P = 0.024 and 0.0026, respectively). PEDF A and B (20 nM) suppressed VEGF-induced retinal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation by 48.8% and 41.4%, respectively, after 5 days (P < 0.001) and VEGF-induced migration by 86.5% +/- 16.7% and 78.1% +/- 22.3%, respectively, after 4 hours (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that elevated concentrations of PEDF inhibit VEGF-induced retinal endothelial cell growth and migration and retinal neovascularization. These findings suggest that localized administration of PEDF may be an effective approach for the treatment of ischemia-induced retinal neovascular disorders.
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