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Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).
Nancy R Cook; Jeffrey A Cutler; Eva Obarzanek; Julie E Buring; Kathryn M Rexrode; Shiriki K Kumanyika; Lawrence J Appel; Paul K Whelton (Profiled Author: Lawrence Appel)
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com
BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2007;334(7599):885-8.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of reduction in dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular events using data from two completed randomised trials, TOHP I and TOHP II. DESIGN: Long term follow-up assessed 10-15 years after the original trial. SETTING: 10 clinic sites in 1987-90 (TOHP I) and nine sites in 1990-5 (TOHP II). Central follow-up conducted by post and phone. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 30-54 years with prehypertension. INTERVENTION: Dietary sodium reduction, including comprehensive education and counselling on reducing intake, for 18 months (TOHP I) or 36-48 months (TOHP II). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularisation, or cardiovascular death). RESULTS: 744 participants in TOHP I and 2382 in TOHP II were randomised to a sodium reduction intervention or control. Net sodium reductions in the intervention groups were 44 mmol/24 h and 33 mmol/24 h, respectively. Vital status was obtained for all participants and follow-up information on morbidity was obtained from 2415 (77%), with 200 reporting a cardiovascular event. Risk of a cardiovascular event was 25% lower among those in the intervention group (relative risk 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.99, P=0.04), adjusted for trial, clinic, age, race, and sex, and 30% lower after further adjustment for baseline sodium excretion and weight (0.70, 0.53 to 0.94), with similar results in each trial. In secondary analyses, 67 participants died (0.80, 0.51 to 1.26, P=0.34). CONCLUSION: Sodium reduction, previously shown to lower blood pressure, may also reduce long term risk of cardiovascular events.
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