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N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality in blacks with hypertensive kidney disease: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK).
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, 2024 E Monument St, Suite 2-600, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of N-terminal prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) in several disease states, but few data are available in patients with chronic kidney disease or in blacks. METHODS AND RESULTS: The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial enrolled hypertensive blacks with a glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 65 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) and no other identified cause of kidney disease. NT-proBNP was measured with a sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (coefficient of variation 2.9%) in 994 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension participants. NT-proBNP was categorized as undetectable, low, moderate, or high. Proteinuria was defined as 24-hour urinary protein-creatinine ratio >0.22. A total of 134 first CVD events (CVD death or hospitalization for coronary artery disease, heart failure, or stroke) occurred over a median of 4.3 years. Participants with high NT-proBNP were much more likely to have a CVD event than participants with undetectable NT-proBNP after adjustment (relative hazard 4.0 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1 to 7.6]). A doubling of NT-proBNP was associated with a relative hazard of 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) for coronary artery disease, 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.2) for heart failure, 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) for stroke, and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) for CVD death. The association of NT-proBNP with CVD events was significantly stronger (P(interaction)=0.05) in participants with than in those without proteinuria. Higher NT-proBNP was not associated with renal disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that elevated NT-proBNP levels are associated with higher CVD risk among blacks with hypertensive kidney disease. This association may be stronger in individuals with significant proteinuria.
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