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Effect of protein, unsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intakes on plasma apolipoprotein B and VLDL and LDL containing apolipoprotein C-III: results from the OmniHeart Trial.
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
The American journal of clinical nutrition 2008;87(6):1623-30.
BACKGROUND: Plasma apolipoprotein B (apo B) and VLDL and LDL with apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary intake affects lipoprotein concentration and composition related to those apolipoproteins. OBJECTIVE: We studied differences in apo B lipoproteins with and without apo C-III after 3 healthy diets based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial diet. DESIGN: Healthy participants (n = 162) were fed each of 3 healthy diets for 6 wk in a crossover design. Diets differed by emphasis of either carbohydrate (Carb), unsaturated fat (Unsat), or protein (Prot). Blood was collected at baseline and after diets for analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the Carb diet, the Prot diet reduced plasma apo B and triglycerides in VLDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.07; 11%, P = 0.05, respectively) and apo B in LDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.04). Compared with the Unsat diet, the Prot diet reduced triglycerides in VLDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.02). Compared with baseline (subjects' usual diet was higher in saturated fat), the Prot diet reduced apo B in LDL with apo C-III (11%, P = 0.05), and all 3 diets reduced plasma total apo B (6-10%, P < 0.05) and apo B in the major type of LDL, LDL without apo C-III (8-10%, P < 0.01). All 3 diets reduced the ratio of apo C-III to apo E in VLDL. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting protein for carbohydrate in the context of a healthy dietary pattern reduced atherogenic apo C-III-containing LDL and its precursor, apo C-III-containing VLDL, resulting in the most favorable profile of apo B lipoproteins. In addition, compared with a typical high-saturated fat diet, healthy diets that emphasize carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat reduce plasma total and LDL apo B and produce a lower more metabolically favorable ratio of apo C-III to apo E.
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