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Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.
Archives of internal medicine 1993;153(12):1429-38.
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that supplementation of diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), commonly referred to as fish oils, may reduce blood pressure (BP). However, most clinical trials of omega-3 PUFA supplementation have been of insufficient size to detect relevant BP changes. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 controlled clinical trials of omega-3 PUFA supplementation. To estimate an overall effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on BP, we calculated the net BP change in each trial (BP delta in omega-3 PUFA group minus BP delta in control group), which was then weighted according to the inverse of the variance. RESULTS: In the 11 trials that enrolled normotensive individuals (n = 728), omega-3 PUFA supplementation led to significant reductions of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in two and one trials, respectively. In the six studies that enrolled untreated hypertensives (n = 291), significant reductions of SBP and DBP were present in two and four trials, respectively. Weighted, pooled estimates of SBP and DBP change (mm Hg) with 95% confidence intervals were -1.0 (-2.0 to 0.0) and -0.5 (-1.2 to +0.2) in the trials of normotensives, and -5.5 (-8.1 to -2.9) and -3.5 (-5.0 to -2.1) in the trials of untreated hypertensives. In 13 of 17 studies, trial duration was less than 3 months. Doses of omega-3 PUFA tended to be high (average dose > 3 g/d in 11 trials). The magnitude of BP reduction was greatest at high BP but was not significantly associated with dose of omega-3 PUFA. Side effects, most commonly eructation and a fishy taste, occurred more frequently in omega-3 PUFA participants than in control participants (28% vs 13%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses indicate that diet supplementation with a relatively high dose of omega-3 PUFA, generally more than 3 g/d, can lead to clinically relevant BP reductions in individuals with untreated hypertension. However, use of omega-3 PUFA as antihypertensive therapy will require demonstration of long-term efficacy and patient acceptability of lower doses.
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