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Mitochondrial detachment of hexokinase 1 in mood and psychotic disorders: implications for brain energy metabolism and neurotrophic signaling.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Journal of psychiatric research 2012;46(1):95-104.
The pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, including unipolar depression (UPD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ), is largely unknown. Numerous studies, from molecular to neuroimaging, indicate that some individuals with these disorders have impaired brain energy metabolism evidenced by abnormal glucose metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, underlying mechanisms are unclear. A critical feature of brain energy metabolism is attachment to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of hexokinase 1 (HK1), an initial and rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis. HK1 attachment to the OMM greatly enhances HK1 enzyme activity and couples cytosolic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, through which the cell produces most of its adenosine triphosphate (ATP). HK1 mitochondrial attachment is also important to the survival of neurons and other cells through prevention of apoptosis and oxidative damage. Here we show, for the first time, a decrease in HK1 attachment to the OMM in postmortem parietal cortex brain tissue of individuals with UPD, BPD and SCHZ compared to tissue from controls without psychiatric illness. Furthermore, we show that HK1 mitochondrial detachment is associated with increased activity of the polyol pathway, an alternative, anaerobic pathway of glucose metabolism. These findings were observed in samples from both medicated and medication-free individuals. We propose that HK1 mitochondrial detachment could be linked to these disorders through impaired energy metabolism, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and impaired brain growth and development.
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