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Lymphovascular invasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma-Association with disease-free and cancer-specific survival

Michael Belsante; Oussama Darwish; Ramy Youssef; Aditya Bagrodia; Payal Kapur; Arthur I. Sagalowsky; Yair Lotan; Vitaly Margulis

(Profiled Authors: Payal Kapur; Yair Lotan; Vitaly Margulis; Arthur I Sagalowsky)

Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 2014;32(1):30.e23-30.e28.


Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the effect of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with clinically localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: Patients with ccRCC who were treated surgically in 1997 to 2010 were identified. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinical outcomes. Independent pathologic re-review was performed by a single pathologist to confirm LVI status. Pathologic features were correlated with clinical outcomes using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results: Four hundred and nineteen patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC comprised the study cohort. Three hundred and thirty-three of these patients had an organ-confined (pT1-2, N any, and M0) disease. LVI was present in 14.3% of all nonmetastatic patients. In all patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC, presence of LVI was correlated with significantly shorter DFS (P <0.001) and CSS (P = 0.001) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. In cases of organ-confined, nonmetastatic ccRCC, presence of LVI was a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio = 4.0, P = 0.026) and CSS (hazard ratio = 12.7, P = 0.01) on multivariate analysis. Patients with organ-confined RCC who were LVI positive had similar DFS (P = 0.957) and CSS (P = 0.799) to patients with locally advanced tumors (pT3-pT4, N any, and M0) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusions: The presence of LVI is an independent predictor of both DFS and CSS in organ-confined, nonmetastatic ccRCC. LVI positivity in patients with otherwise pathologically organ-confined ccRCC confers oncologic outcomes similar to those of patients with locally advanced disease. If confirmed by others, future revisions to the tumor-node-metastasis staging system may incorporate LVI status into the prognostic algorithm of patients with RCC. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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