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Exchange kinetics by inversion transfer: Integrated analysis of the phosphorus metabolite kinetic exchanges in resting human skeletal muscle at 7 T

Jimin Ren; Baolian Yang; A. Dean Sherry; Craig R. Malloy

(Profiled Authors: Craig R Malloy; Jimin Ren; Dean Sherry)

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2014.

Abstract

Purpose: To develop an inversion pulse-based, chemical exchange saturation transfer-like method for detection of 31P magnetization exchanges among all nuclear magnetic resonance visible metabolites suitable for providing an integrated kinetic analysis of phosphorus exchange reactions in vivo. Methods: The exchange kinetics by inversion transfer (EKIT) sequence includes application of a frequency-selective inversion pulse arrayed over the range of relevant 31P frequencies, followed by a constant delay and a hard readout pulse. A series of EKIT spectra, each given by a plot of Z-magnetization for each metabolite of interest versus frequency of the inversion pulse, can be generated from this single data set. Results: EKIT spectra reflect chemical exchange due to known biochemical reactions, cross-relaxation effects, and relayed magnetization transfers due to both processes. The rate constants derived from EKIT data collected on resting human skeletal muscle were: ATP synthesis via ATP synthase (0.050±0.016 s-1), ATP synthesis via creatine kinase (0.264±0.023 s-1), and cross-relaxation between neighboring spin pairs within ATP (0.164±0.022 s-1). Conclusion: EKIT provides a simple, alternative method to detect chemical exchange, cross relaxation, and relayed magnetization transfer effects in human skeletal muscle at 7 T. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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